International Business Review
This paper contributes to a multidimensional perspective on the speed of SME internationalization. It examines the influence of entrepreneurial characteristics – experience, rationales and innovation strategies – on multiple dimensions of internationalization speed. Findings from a sample of 180 SMEs show that earliness, speed of deepening, and speed of geographic diversification can be viewed as three different strategic alternatives and that each dimension is predicted by a different set of entrepreneurial antecedents. Earliness of internationalization is associated with entrepreneurs’ international business experience and their perception of opportunities abroad as well as preference for an innovation strategy characterized by ambidextrous innovation. Speed of deepening is related to entrepreneurs’ international business experience, their orientation towards differentiation vis-à-vis competitors, and commitment to innovation and a strategy focusing on exploration. These results indicate the importance of distinguishing between different forms of innovation. Speed of geographic diversification is predicted only by entrepreneurs’ orientation towards differentiation vis-à-vis competitors.
Speed of deepening
Speed of geographic diversification
Since 1945, the liberal-democratic model of capitalism spread across the globe, ultimately prevailing over communism. Over the past two decades, a new statist-authoritarian model has begun diffusing across East Asia. Rather than rejecting capitalism, authoritarian leaders harness it to uphold their rule. Based on extensive research of East Asia's largest corporations and sovereign wealth funds, this book argues that the most aggressive version of this model does not belong to China. Rather, it can be found in Malaysia and Singapore. Although these countries are small, the implications are profound because one-third of all countries in the world possess the same type of regime. With an increasing number of these authoritarian regimes establishing sovereign wealth funds, their ability to intervene in the corporate sectors of other countries is rapidly expanding.
The primary purpose of this case is to teach and/or integrate key strategic planning frameworks used during the strategic management process, including those used in external analysis (i.e., industry, suppliers, customers, and competitors) and internal analysis (i.e., resources, capabilities, and firm value chain). It also introduces a framework for strategy formulation at the business-level (i.e., cost-leadership, differentiation, and focused strategies). This case is applied for teaching strategic planning and business-level strategy formulation. It is particularly useful to illustrate strategic planning in the Chinese context.
The case introduces the formation of Branded Lifestyle Holdings Ltd. (Braded Lifestyle), an Asian apparel retail company that emerged from Fung Retailing Limited’s acquisition of Hong Kong–listed Hang Ten Group. With five apparel brands (i.e., Hang Ten, H:Connect, Arnold Palmer, LEO, and Roots), Branded Lifestyle had been profitable in most of its markets in Asia (e.g., Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore). However, it had struggled in China, reporting annual loses until its acquisition in 2011. Ramanathan Dilip Shivkumar (Dilip) was appointed as the new Managing Director of Global Brands of Branded Lifestyle in 2014. Looking at the evolving apparel industry in China and reviewing the company’s weak performance over the past years, Dilip needed to develop a strategic plan to turnaround the company’s operations and build a strong and sustainable business in the Chinese market.