Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis
We examine the role of relationship-based resource allocations during the approval process of secondary equity offerings (SEOs) in the Chinese capital market. In this unique regulatory setting, SEO-seeking firms must have their applications approved by an Issuance Examination Committee (IEC) of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC), a hybrid template between government-directed and market-directed models. We identify guanxi-based relationships as cases in which the partner of an intermediary professional firm (e.g., auditing or law) employed by the SEO applicant also serves on secondment as a full-time IEC member. Our results show that these guanxi-based relationships significantly increase the likelihood of SEO approvals, particularly for suspect SEO applicants with abnormal levels of earnings management, related-party transactions, and inter-company loans. More importantly, we find that guanxi-influenced SEO firms have significantly poorer performance in the post-SEO period, which indicates that it results in inefficient resource allocations. In addition, we show that these quid pro quo arrangements benefit IEC-member intermediaries through higher market shares and professional fee revenues. Overall, our evidence suggests that relationship-based resource allocations lead to negative spillover effects that impose social welfare losses.
Journal of International Business Studies
We investigate the association between a firm’s political connections and its merger and acquisition (M&A) performance. Using a sample of M&A deals made by politically connected acquirers and their matched non-connected peers across 22 countries, we find that political connections play an economically significant role in post-merger performance. The nature of this effect depends on the institutional setting. In countries with strong legal systems or low levels of corruption, politically connected bidders underperform unconnected bidders by roughly 15% in terms of abnormal stock returns over a 3-year period. In contrast, politically connected bidders outperform unconnected bidders by more than 20% in countries with weak legal systems or high levels of corruption. We find more evidence of differential post-merger performance for domestic mergers than for cross-border mergers. Overall, our findings show that political connectedness has a significant influence on M&A activities, and the nature of this influence depends crucially on the institutional environment.
cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As)
institutions and international business