Asia Pacific Journal of Management
We propose a new construct-role-based paternalistic exchange, or followers' awareness of and engagement in a family-like exchange relationship with leaders that builds upon both leaders' parent-like role and followers' child-like obligation. We use this construct to explain the joint effect of leader authoritarianism and benevolence, the essential components of paternalistic leadership, on two culture-specific follower outcomes in Chinese settings: emic organizational citizenship behavior and deference to supervisor. Using three independent samples, we develop a unidimensional measure. We then employ another sample to test how leader authoritarianism and benevolence relate to role-based paternalistic exchange and, thereby, the two follower outcomes indirectly. Our results indicate that, in contrast to authoritarianism- or benevolence-dominant paternalistic leadership, classical paternalistic leadership (the balanced display of leader authoritarianism and benevolence) has the greatest potential to facilitate role-based paternalistic exchange, which, in turn, positively relates to the two follower outcomes. These results suggest that role-based paternalistic exchange advances our understanding of how paternalistic leadership enhances emic outcomes in Chinese settings.