Personality and Social Psychology Review
We provide a meta-analytical review examining two decades of work on the relationship between individuals’ social identifications and health in organizations (102 effect sizes, k = 58, N = 19,799). Results reveal a mean-weighted positive association between organizational identification and health (r = .21, T = .14). Analysis identified a positive relationship for both workgroup (r = .21) and organizational identification (r = .21), and in studies using longitudinal/experimental (r = .13) and cross-sectional designs (r = .22). The relationship is stronger (a) for indicators of the presence of well-being (r = .27) than absence of stress (r = .18), (b) for psychological (r = .23) than physical health (r = .16), (c) to the extent that identification is shared among group members, and (d) as the proportion of female participants in a sample decreases. Overall, results indicate that social identifications in organizations are positively associated with health but that there is also substantial variation in effect size strength. We discuss implications for theory and practice and outline a roadmap for future research.
European Journal of Social Psychology
Previous research has focused on the importance of leaders being seen to be of the group (i.e. to be prototypical of a group) but less on the impact of leaders’ own degree of identification with the group. Also, little is known about the combined impact of leader prototypicality and leader identification on followers’ responses. This paper reports two studies that address these lacunae. Study 1 shows experimentally that perceived leader identification and prototypicality interact to determine followers’ personal identification with leaders and their perceptions of leader charisma. Findings indicate that high identification can com- pensate for low prototypicality such that high-identified leaders are able to inspire followership when leaders are low prototyp- ical. Study 2 replicates these findings in the field by examining followers’ responses to workgroup leaders. In addition, results demonstrate that the aforementioned responses are more pronounced for highly identified followers. The present research ex- tends social identity theorizing by demonstrating that leaders’ inability to inspire followership derives as much from their failure to project a sense of ‘we’ and ‘us’ as part of their self-concept as from a failure to exemplify group-typical attributes
German Journal of Human Resource Management: Zeitschrift für Personalforschung
Previous research has examined burnout and work engagement as a function of de- mands and resources at work. Yet we know little about the ways in which these are determined by people’s social experience as a member of their workgroup as shaped, in particular, by leaders’ management of shared identity. To address these issues, we propose a model in which leaders’ identity entrepreneurship (the degree to which the leader promotes understanding of shared group identity) impacts on group perform- ance through burnout and work engagement. We tested our model in a field study with 641 participants from the US working population who responded to their work- group leader and indicated their health. Results indicated that when leaders acted as identity entrepreneurs, group members not only reported higher group performance but also experienced less burnout and were more engaged at work. Moreover, the rela- tionship between identity entrepreneurship and group performance was mediated by an increase in work engagement and a reduction in burnout both of which in turn fa- cilitated group performance. These findings suggest that what it means for health- protective leaders to be ‘transformational’ is being capable of facilitating the develop- ment of a special sense of ‘us’ that they and group members share.