A high-performance work system (HPWS) is defined as a series of performance-enhancing human resource management practices. Many studies have demonstrated the positive relationship of HPWSs with organizational, group, and individual performance. However, evidence has indicated that HPWSs can also exert negative effects. In this paper, taking a dialectical view, we elaborate several propositions regarding why HPWSs have negative effects and when these negative effects occur, mainly from the perspective of employees. We also propose several research directions enriching knowledge of the relationship between HPWSs and organizational outcomes.
High-performance work system