International Journal of Human Resource Management
Drawing on Denison and Mishra (1995)’s framework of organizational culture, this study examines why and when organizational culture is related to knowledge workers’ affective commitment. Data were collected from 640 employees working in three high-technology companies in China. The findings indicate that the relationship between organizational culture and affective commitment is mediated by perceived psychological contract fulfilment. In addition, organizational tenure moderates the relationship between two external dimensions (i.e. adaptability and mission) of organizational culture and perceived psychological contract fulfilment. This study extends the current theoretical framework of organizational culture by demonstrating the underlying mechanism and the boundary condition of the relationship between organizational culture and affective commitment. The findings also provide practical implications for international managers to design appropriate human resource management policies and practices in China.
Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the human resources (HR) literature by using exploratory network analysis (ENA), a data-driven technique. This technique was employed to discover how the perceived effectiveness of HR practices interrelate with employee perceptions on organizational cultural factors to enhance organizational commitment.
The authors used data from 1,459 employees of a large South Korean conglomerate and studied how individual HR practices could be enhanced by specific organizational cultural factors. The data were analyzed using ENA, which is an inductive approach.
The authors found that organizational commitment is associated with the positive perceptions of employees on the effectiveness of HR practices, such as performance appraisal, training and development, and compensation. Results show that when both HR practices and organizational cultural factors are considered, they appear to influence organizational commitment independently.
Data were collected from a large conglomerate. The authors were limited by the use of the scales developed by a consulting firm. Therefore, readers should be cautious about the generalizability of the findings.
The application of a data-driven technique (ENA) highlights the potentially fertile methodological grounds for HR research. Literature on strategic HR management may benefit from inductive approaches, wherein data serve as primary foundation for the design and development of new theories.
Supply Chain Management: An International Journal
Purpose - This study aims to bridge the gap in understanding the effects of organizational culture on supply chain integration (SCI) by examining the relationships between organizational cultures and SCI. The extant studies investigating the antecedents of SCI focus mainly on environments, interfirm relationships and other firm-level factors. These studies generally overlook the role of organizational culture. The few studies that do examine the effects of organizational culture on SCI show inconsistent findings.
Design/methodology/approach - By placing organizational culture within the competing value framework (CVF), this study establishes a conceptual model for the relationships between organizational culture and SCI. The study uses both a contingency approach and a configuration approach to examine these proposed relationships using data collected from 317 manufacturers across ten countries.
Findings - The contingency results indicate that both development and group culture are positively related to all three dimensions of SCI. However, rational culture is positively related only to internal integration, and hierarchical culture is negatively related to both internal and customer integration. The configuration approach identifies four profiles of organizational culture: the Hierarchical, Flexible, Flatness and Across-the-Board profiles. The Flatness profile shows the highest levels of development, group and rational cultures and the lowest level of hierarchical culture. The Flatness profile also achieves the highest levels of internal, customer and supplier integration.
Research limitations/implications - This study is subject to several limitations. In theoretical terms, this study does not resolve all of the inconsistencies in the relationship between organizational culture and SCI. In terms of methodology, this study uses cross-sectional data from high-performance manufacturers. Such data cannot provide strong causal explanations, but only broad and general findings.
Practical implications - This study reminds managers to consider organizational culture when they implement SCI. The study also provides clues to help managers in assessing and adjusting organizational culture as necessary for SCI.
Originality/value - This study makes two theoretical contributions. First, by examining the relationships between organizational culture and SCI in a new context, the findings of the study provide additional evidence to reconcile the previously inconsistent findings on this subject. Second, by departing from the previous practice of investigating only particular dimensions of organizational culture, this study adopts a combined contingency and configuration approach to address both the individual and synergistic effects of all dimensions of organizational culture. This more comprehensive approach deepens our understanding of the relationship between organizational culture and SCI.
– Yongye Group: trust‐based management.
– The case is suitable for MBA, Executive level courses.
– Yongye Group is a biotechnological enterprise in Inner Mongolia, China. In China, people lack trust in economic transactions due to the transitional state of the economy, especially regarding food safety. To respond to this situation, Wu Zishen, the chairman of the Board of Directors of Yongye Group, was determined to build trust among employees, distributors, farmers, and consumers towards the company. To this end, he started using a creative incentive system with employees and stakeholders: the pay‐before‐performance incentive system. According to this system, the reward is delivered in advance, contrary to be paid after the fulfillment of the task. This practice is meant to transform employees' work attitude from a passive “being told to work” to a more proactive “I want to work” mentality. When such an incentive system is practiced with customers and external distributors, it sends a message that the company is “treating customers as company employees”, which means that they are trusted as if they were part of the company itself. Wu Zishen also introduced a coherent series of leadership practices that generate a truly proactive culture in the organization.
Expected learning outcomes
– From this case, students will learn how to create a proactive culture in business organizations and the effect of pay‐before‐performance on employees' work motivation.
– Teaching notes and an exercise for class‐based discussion are available.
Advanced reward incentive system
When IKEA opened its Shanghai Xuhui store in 2003, it adopted some strategies, such as opening the store in the city center rather than in the suburbs, that diverged from its normal practices. After all, the Chinese market was different and therefore required different strategies. However, little had IKEA anticipated that “being different” would entail the congregation of as many as 700 seniors at its restaurant for dating purposes! What normally would have been good business for the restaurant became an unexpected management challenge as the dating seniors only partook of free coffee, which came along with their IKEA family card. The case illustrates the challenges that the store faced and how it met them while maintaining the IKEA vision to the greatest extent possible. The learning objectives are to: (1) understand how different geographies can bring unexpected managerial challenges for international managers; (2) examine the China-specific experience of a company; and (3) analyze the importance of company vision in the face of management challenges.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Journal of International Marketing
The authors examine how organizational dimensions, including corporate culture and market orientation, affect peformance in major Indian firms. The research uses a framework (the universal high performance model) developed in the United States and first tested in Japan to assess Indian organizational business-to-business relationships. Although there are some intuitively obvious substantive differences between Indian and Japanese companies, the general pattern of how various factors drive business performance is similar in both countries despite the different economic environments in India and Japan.