Long Range Planning
China is simultaneously growing and transforming from a command to a market system. The process of reform began earlier than in Eastern Europe, but the state owned enterprise sector remains an intractable problem. What has accounted for the remarkable rate of economic growth sustained over the last 20 years, are the spontaneous entrepreneurial efforts of the collectively owned Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs), and the Private and Individual Enterprises (IOEs). Together with the widespread distribution of shareholding, this could represent the foundations of a stakeholder economy. The success of further economic reform will depend on the perception of the Chinese people's stake in the future of their country.
This paper reports on an integrative, cross-nationalstudy which synthesizes and retests work of three separate groupsof researchers who in the late 1980‘s developed measurementsof a firm's Market Orientation. The projects resulted in threedifferent but syntactically similar Market Orientation scaleswhich, along with other measures, were used to support substantiveconclusions, particularly those involving firm Performance. Basedon a new study of 82 managers in 27 European and U.S. companies,we show that all three scales are reliable and valid. The scalesalso seem to generalize well internationally, both in terms ofreliability and prediction of Performance. We also show thatthe scales are similar to one another in terms of various validitymeasures and in terms of correlations with Performance measures.Finally, we synthesize a 10-item scale based on a more parsimoniousdefinition of Market Orientation as: ’’the set of cross-functionalprocesses and activities directed at creating and satisfyingcustomers through continuous needs-assessment.‘‘
Classifiers are lexico-syntactic structures that are common in Chinese but not in English. In 3 studies, the authors demonstrated that classifiers provide a language-inherent classification of objects (affecting perceived similarity and memory) and, more importantly, guide individuals' judgments in a practically relevant context (e.g., in the evaluation of advertisements). Chinese speaking participants, relative to English speaking participants, judged objects sharing a classifier as more similar than objects not sharing a classifier and were more likely to recall them in clusters. Moreover, objects, presented as consumer products in an advertising context, were evaluated more positively when cued with a visual stimulus that triggers classifier-related associations. Results are discussed in the context of the recent reformulation of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.