Academy of Management Learning and Education
To identify the possible mismatch between what MBA students are supposed to learn and what they are actually exposed to in the case methods, we analyzed the manifest and latent meanings of popular MBA teaching cases in the United States and China. Our findings suggest that despite repeated calls for a more holistic approach to management education, overemphasis on the rational framework persists. We identify five patterns common to both U.S. and Chinese cases; namely, rationalistic framework, undersocialized protagonist, strategy-driven organization, manager-as-analyst, and naïve and biased politics. We also discuss the likely causes for the biases and propose possible ways to develop better-balanced teaching cases.
Les cahiers de recherche - Groupe HEC
This paper compares the R&D disclosure practices in France and Canada, as evidenced in the annual reports of 76 French and 110 Canadian listed companies. It finds that Canadian high-tech companies (hardware, software, and biotechnology) disclose significantly more information on their R&D activities than their French counterparts. It also finds a strong link between R&D intensity and R&D disclosure among Canadian high-tech companies. Canadian companies overall are also found to be more likely to use non-financial disclosure as a means to resolve any R&D information asymmetry, while French firms disclose more traditional financial and accounting information. Canadian companies are also more willing than French firms to provide information concerning their future R&D expenditures. These results are consistent with inherent cultural and capital market differences between France and Canada. In contrast, the study does not find any significant difference in R&D expenditure capitalization policies between French and Canadian firms.
(VF)Selon les règles comptables françaises, les sociétés ont la possibilité de « capitaliser » leurs frais de R&D sous certaines conditions. En analysant les rapports annuels 2000 des sociétés non financières appartenant à lindice SBF 250, nous avons tenté de comprendre pourquoi certaines sociétés françaises utilisent cette possibilité. Nos résultats montrent que les sociétés qui « capitalisent » la R&D sont celles qui sont les plus « risquées », cest-à-dire qui appartiennent au secteur de la haute technologie ou ont un coefficient bêta plus élevé.(VA) According to French accounting standards, companies have the possibility to capitalize their R&D expenses under certain conditions. By analyzing the annual reports of non-financial companies listed on the Paris stock exchange and included in the SBF250 index (annual reports 2000), we try to identify which firm characteristics can help predict this accounting choice. Our results provide evidence that companies capitalizing R&D are those belonging to hi-tech industries or having a high beta.
Though written 2,500 years ago, The Art of War by Sun Tzu is still highly relevant to business management in the 21st century. In this article Juan Antonio Fernandez updates Sun Tzu's ideas and presents them in a business setting. China has always been a fertile land of great thinkers. Most of those philosophers were concerned not with metaphysical quests but to finding ways to live a correct life in society. No wonder they excelled in sociology, psychology, ethics and the organisation of society. They devoted themselves to searching for, examining and then prescribing ways of establishing a harmonious and orderly social life.
Journal of International Business Studies
Previous studies have examined the relationship between cooperation and performance in international equity joint ventures (EJVs), mostly at the partner level. This study revisits the issue at multiple levels, and considers vertical and horizontal cooperation among the foreign partners, the local partner, and the venture management team. The study also examines how goal incongruence between partners and market uncertainty affect the tripartite relationships between cooperation and performance. The test results show a strong positive impact of cooperation between partners on performance as perceived both by the partners and by the venture management team. One partner's cooperation with the venture management team is perceived favorably by that party but not necessarily by the other party unless both partners share the same goal. Market uncertainty requires stronger cooperation at all levels to improve performance in EJVs.
international equity joint ventures
This study investigates the relationship between characteristics of environmental policy statements and the reputations of ISO 14001 registrars who had performed certification audits of firms operating in mainland China. Three characteristics of environmental policy statements were examined: (1) The conformance of the policy to strict interpretations of the international standard; (2) The policy statement's adherence to the good practice guidelines specified in ISO 14004; and, (3) Self-reported evaluations of the policy statement's effectiveness as implemented. Data from 106 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou reveal that registrar quality has a relatively weak, positive relationship with conformance to both ISO 14001 standards and to ISO 14004 guidelines, but no relationship was observed with the self-reported data. Additional findings are that the use of foreign registrars is significantly associated with the adoption of ISO 14004 guidelines and that conformance with ISO 14001 standards is somewhat higher for international joint ventures and foreign-owned firms than for state-owned enterprises.
Research traditionally regards the product attribute as the determinant in consumers' variety seeking. Research has focused mainly on examining variety seeking in the brands used, and assumes that consumers can clearly appreciate the product attributes and identify the variety they need. Therefore these theories do not incorporate the influence of the company name in the consumers' decision to purchase a brand. It is believed, however, that consumers' information processing is different when purchasing an unknown brand. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore what factors affect consumers' reliance on the company name — that is, the name of the corporation alone — in their decision to purchase a brand that has not been previously purchased.
This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm’s reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits.