Entorno socio-económico de los sistemas de salud. El entorno europeo. La sanidad en Latinoamérica y su entorno. Sistemas sanitarios: nuevos retos. Salud, capital humano y productividad. Sistema nacional de salud en España. Estudio de situación del sistema sanitario español. El objetivo de equidad. Sistemas de pago a proveed ores. Planificación de políticas sanitarias.
Advances in International Accounting
Since September 11, 2001 and during the ensuing economic slowdown, a number of airline companies have experienced significant financial difficulties, including bankruptcies and near bankruptcies. In an economic setting where many airlines are struggling to achieve or maintain profitability, it is important for accountants, auditors, and financial analysts to be able to analyze the relative performance of such companies. In this industry, income statements are normally prepared “by nature” rather than “by function.” This differs from the usual presentation found in the income statements of many companies around the world, in particular most American companies. This paper demonstrates how to perform a comparative financial statement analysis when an income statement is prepared “by nature,” through application of a tool called the “Statement of Intermediate Balances.” This tool is illustrated using three companies chosen from different continents: Southwest Airlines, a low cost U.S. air carrier, Air France, the leader in Europe, and China Eastern Airlines, one of the biggest Chinese air carriers.
Historically, the format of financial statements has varied from one country to another. Recently, due to the attractiveness of their capital markets, the strength of their accounting professions and the influence of their institutional investors, Anglo-American countries have seen the impact of their accounting practices on other nations increase steadily, even influencing the actual format of financial statements. Given that French accounting regulations allow a certain degree of choice in consolidated balance sheet format ('by nature' or 'by term') and income statement format ('by nature' or 'by function'), this study examines a sample of 199 large French listed firms in an attempt to understand why some of these firms do not use the traditional French formats ('by nature' for the balance sheet and 'by nature' for the income statement), instead preferring Anglo-American practices ('by term' format for the balance sheet and 'by function' format for the income statement). We first analyze the balance sheet and income statement formats separately using a logit model, then combine the two and enrich the research design with a generalized ordered logit model and a multinomial logit regression. Our results confirm that the major driving factor behind the adoption of one or two alternative formats is the firm's degree of internationalization, not only financial (auditor type, foreign listing and the decision to apply alternative accounting standards) but also commercial (company size and the internationalization of sales).
Outsourcing became fashionable in the late 1980s, came of age in the 1990s, and is now a normal part of corporate life. Written by well–known and respected business authors and incorporating new research from Copenhagen Business School, this book covers the newest elements of outsourcing today and discusses how strategic alliances should be established between the buyer and supplier. Topics explored throughout include the scope, scale and importance of what is outsourced; the pricing and risk sharing involved; and changes to organizations which lead them to seek more outsourcing.
This case is a supplement to A Rough Road to Entrepreneurial Success (A).Mr. Yang’s company had been doing well in its choice of a heart valve project, yet the market was too small. Thus, the company decided to enter the surgical stapler market and begin R&D on its own. The R&D and launching of the product in an international exhibition was a success, yet Yang met unexpected difficulties when building the factory for production. The construction contractor turned out to be dishonest and the completion of the factory’s construction seemed hopeless. Yang and his team felt lost in handling the situation. Yang realized that entrepreneurial success was really a tough and rough road!
Shanghai Automotive (SAIC), one of China’s “Big Three” automakers, paid USD 571 million in 2004 to acquire a controlling majority share in Ssangyong Motors of South Korea to help SAIC achieve its strategic objectives of developing its own passenger car brand and expanding operations internationally. This first case in a three-case series covers the decision making leading up to the deal signed in October 2004 and implemented in January 2005. It provides a basis for comparing modes of growth options (make, buy, or ally) and the specific challenges facing Chinese firms and other newly-internationalizing firms as they go abroad. The case also generates discussion of fundamental acquisition issues: target selection, assessment, and integration planning.
Merger and Acquisition (M&A)
La luz y la sombra es una exploración original e inspirada de la rica y a veces deslumbradora diversidad de las empresas e innovaciones europeas, diversidad que pone en evidencia a esos teóricos para quienes sólo hay un camino que lleve al éxito. La obra demuestra que son muchas las formas de innovar, aunque ciertamente hay unas reglas fundamentales que deben cumplirse en todo caso.
La luz y la sombra que se basa en el estudio de 13 empresas innovadoras de categoría mundial, dará a los hombres y mujeres de negocios valor para innovar aprovechando la rica variedad de estilos y culturas existente en Europa. La ventaja competitiva obtenida de esas innovaciones puede ser enorme.